Admiralty & Maritime Cases - Canada NPA logo with link NPA logo with link

Admiralty & Maritime Cases - Canada

Listing by year

A selection of decisions (with links to full text where available)

2017

29 Sep 2017: Wärtsilä Canada inc. v Transport Desgagnés inc., 2017 QCCA 1471

10 Mar 2017: ING Bank N.V. v Canpotex Shipping Services Limited 2017 FCA 47

2016

5 Apr 2016: Thibeault c. Canada (Transports, Infrastructure et Collectivités) 2016 CAF 102

2015

2 Dec 2015: Roots v HMCS Annapolis (Ship), 2015 FC 1339

26 Oct 2015: National Bank of Canada v Rogers, 2015 FC 1207

6 Oct 2015: Asia Ocean Services, Inc. (UPS Asia Group Pte Ltd) v Belair Fabrication Ltd, 2015 FC 1141

23 Sep 2015: Canpotex Shipping Services Limited v Marine Petrobulk Ltd., 2015 FC 1108

29 Apr 2015: Allchem Industries Industrial v CMA CGM Florida (Vessel), 2015 FC 558

16 Mar 2015: Ehler Marine & Industrial Service Co. v M/V Pacific Yellowfin (Ship), 2015 FC 324

10 Mar 2015: Snow Valley Marine Services LTD v Seaspan Commodore (Tug), 2015 FC 304

13 Feb 2015: Norwegian Bunkers AS v Boone Star Owners Inc., 2014 FC 1200

2014

19 Dec 2014: Harry Sargeant III v Al-Saleh, 2014 FCA 302

15 Oct 2014: Westshore Terminals Limited Partnership v Leo Ocean, S.A, 2014 FCA 231

22 Sep 2014: Coastal Float Camps Ltd. v Jardine Lloyd Thompson Canada Inc., 2014 FC 906

26 Jun 2014: Offshore Interiors Inc. v Worldspan Marine Inc., 2014 FC 625

14 Jun 2014: General MPP Carriers Ltd. v SCL Bern AG, 2014 FC 571

12 May 2014: Capitaines Propriétaires de la Gaspésie (A.C.P.G.) Inc. v PÊcheries Guy Laflamme Inc., 2014 FC 456

10 Apr 2014: Cameco Corporation v. MCP Altona (Ship), 2014 FC 355

7 Feb 2014: Westshore Terminal Limited v Leo Ocean S.A., 2014 FC 136

2013

13 Nov 2013: 0871768 B.C. Ltd. v Aestival (Sailing Vessel), 2013 FC 899

12 Aug 2013: Lakeland Bank v The Ship "Never E Nuff", 2013 FC 864

2 Aug 2013: Marine Services International Ltd. v Ryan Estate, 2013 SCC 44

30 Jul 2013: 9171-7702 Québec Inc. v Canada, 2013 FC 832

18 Jun 2013: SDV Logiostiques (Canada) Inc. v Barge "Andrea", 2013 FC 671

29 May 2013: Quin-Sea Fisheries Limited v Broadbill I (Ship), 2013 FC 575

5 Mar 2013: Offshore Interiors Inc. v Worldspan Marine Inc., 2013 FC 221

30 Jan 2013: Hagedorn v Helios I (Ship), 2013 FC 101

2012

02 Dec 2012: R. v Toporowski, 2011 SKPC 177
ADMIRALTY - breach of offence in Regulation 28(5) passed pursuant to The Parks Act - where boat was not moored in designated place - where operator refused to move boat when asked by Officer - where beach not marked by buoys - whether demarcation of beach area required

30 Nov 2012: Calogeras & Masters Supplies Inc. v Ceres Hellenic Shipping Enterprises Ltd, 2011 FCA 334
ADMIRALTY -interest on judgment for goods sold and delivered - whether interest should have been awarded at the rate and for the period provided in the General Terms and Conditions - whether waiver of right to interest

8 Nov 2012: Canada Moon Shipping Co. Ltd. v Companhia Siderurgica Paulista-Cosipa, 2012 FCA 284
ADMIRALTY - application for stay of proceedings commenced in Canada - Whether charterparties are a "contract for the carriage of goods by water" for purposes of s 46(1) of the Marine Liability Act, SC 2001, c. 6. - whether arbitration clause in voyage charter-party which provided for arbitration in New York was avoided by the effect of s 46(1) of the Marine Liability Act, SC 2001, c. 6. - where letter of indemnity issued to reassign liability previously assumed under the charterparty - whether, as between ship owner and charterer, letter of indemnity also subject to the arbitration clause as a dispute under the voyage charterparty

ADMIRALTY - forum non conveniens - whether the Court should exercise its discretion to stay the third party proceedings commenced in Canada in favour for proceedings in Brazil

1 Oct 2012: Comfact Corporation v Hull 717 (Ship), 2012 FC 1161
ADMIRALTY - statutory maritime lien - statutory construction - effect of s 139 Marine Liability Act - whether unpaid subcontractor employed in the course of constructing ship has a maritime lien which would rank ahead of the mortgagee

1 Oct 2012: Ship-Source Oil Pollution Fund v British Columbia (Finance), 2012 FC 725
ADMIRALTY - where Administrator of Ship-Source Oil Pollution Fund seeks compensation for cleaning up oil pollution from sunken vessel - jurisdiction - whether Federal Court has in personam jurisdiction over Her Majesty the Queen in Right of the Province of British Columbia - whether Federal Court has subject matter jurisdiction given the question of ownership of the ship is based on provincial law

21 Sep 2012: Grieg Shipping A/S v Dubai Fortune (Ship), 2012 FC 1110
ADMIRALTY - in rem liability - whether owner of ship assisted to berth by a tug vicarious liability for negligence of the tug - where ship was being conducted by compulsory pilots - limitation of liability - whether liability of ship limited according to tonnage of the ship or the tug

30 Aug 2012: Siemens v J.D. Irving, 2012 FCA 225
ADMIRALTY - property damage during loading - limitation of liability- appropriate standard of review - Jurisdiction of Federal Court - whether claim was essentially of a maritime nature - where goods were damaged while being loaded onto a ship - wether power to enjoin is not available until right to limit liability has been determined.

30 July 2012: Feuiltault Solution Systems inc. v Zurich Canada, 2012 FCA 215
ADMIRALTY - marine insurance - onus of proof of proving fortuity - whether all-risks marine insurance policy exclusions with respect to packing applied - where binding machines shipped in containers were rusted when unpacked

29 Jun 2012: Peracomo Inc. v Société Telus Communications, 2012 FCA 199
ADMIRALTY - joint and several liability of company - contributory negligence - limitation of liability - marine insurance - where underwater telecommunications cable deliberately cut with intent to cause loss - where individual who cut cable was also the directing mind and sole officer of company - whether owner of cable liable was contributorily negligent - where cable not buried - whether cable a navigational hazard - whether individual had sufficient knowledge of the cable - limitation of liability - whether appellant entitled to limit liability or whether the conduct barred limitation under Art 4 - insurance coverage - whether actions constituted wilful misconduct

12 Jun 2012: Wells Fargo Equipment Finance Company v Barge "MLT-3", 2012 FC 738
ADMIRALTY - negligence - whether claim in rem and in personam - whether the Hague-Visby rules apply - whether the claim is timed barred - whether defences waived during conversations between parties --

12 Apr 2012: Universal Sales, Limited v Edinburgh Assurance Co. Ltd., 2012 FC 418
ADMIRALTY - marine insurance coverage - where sums paid in settlement of action for cost of refloating a tank-barge - whether expenses incurred on underwriters' behalf - whether the party who settled claim liable - whether any liable covered by the policy

20 Mar 2012: M.V. Stormont v Canada 2012 FCA 93
ADMIRALTY - liability for icebreaking fees - whether any authority to levy icebreaking fees given to the port under its Letters Patent - interpretation of Fee Schedule - principles of bilingual legislation

20 Mar 2012: Seanautic Marine Inc. v Jofor Export Inc., 2012 FC 328
ADMIRALTY - in personam - claim for outstanding freight charges and demurrage on two Bills of Lading - whether the Prothonotary erred in dismissing the cargo owner's motion to stay or strike the action filed by the shipper - where allegations of fraud

19 Mar 2012: Cameco Corp. v Ship "MCP Altona", 2012 FC 324
ADMIRALTY - application for return of security - whether security to be reduced - effect of bankruptcy

08 Mar 2012: Calogeras & Master Supplies Inc. v Ceres Hellenic Shipping Enterprises Ltd, 2012 FCA 79
ADMIRALTY - motion for stay of execution - where did not exercise right of set off at earlier opportunity - security for costs

07 Mar 2012: Hogan v Buote 2012 PESC 10
ADMIRALTY - collision - assessment of liability - Collision Regulations - where one boat had right of way and the other alleged he was fishing - meaning of "vessel engaged in fishing" - whether a custom exists to give way to boats hauling/setting traps - duty to maintain a proper look-out

01 Feb 2012: Tam International Inc. v Ship "M.C.P. Altona" 2012 FC 128
ADMIRALTY - costs - application by mortgage creditor against party who first arrested the ship - where claim said to be meritorious but economically unjustifiable

11 Jan 2012: Buhlman v Buckley, 2011 FC 73
ADMIRALTY - application for summary judgment - whether liability limited under Marine Liability Act SC 2001 - physical injury resulting from collision of two pleasure craft

2011

21 Oct 2011: FFS HK Ltd. v P.T. 25 (Ship) 2011 BCSC 1418
ADMIRALTY - costs - following finding of equal liability for oil spill - whether award for special costs appropriate - whether entitled to double costs where settlement offers made before trial - whether costs should be awarded in proportion to the finding on apportionment of liability, that being 50% -- principles of special costs

29 Jun 2011: JD Irving, Limited v Siemens Canada Limited, 2011 FC 791

27 Apr 2011: Societe Telus Communications v Peracomo Inc., 2011 FC 494

10 Mar 2011: T. Co. Metals LLC v Vessel "Federal Ems", 2011 FC 291

25 Feb 2011: World Fuel Services Corporation v The Ship "Nordems", 2011 FCA 73

24 Feb 2011: Shell Canada Energy v General MPP Carriers, 2011 FC 217

08 Feb 2011: Dufour c. Canada (Procureur General), 2011 CF 138

02 Feb 2011: Jim Pattison Enterprises Ltd. v British Columbia (Workers' Compensation Board), 2011 BCCA 35

20 Jan 2011: Buhlman v Buckley, 2011 FC 73

2010

17 Dec 2010: Kuehne + Nagel Ltd. v Agrimax Ltd., 2010 FC 1303

29 Nov 2010: FFS HK Ltd. v P.T. 25 (Ship), 2010 BCSC 1675

29 Oct 2010: F.C. Yachts Ltd. v P.R. Yacht Builders Ltd., 2010 FC 1066

26 Oct 2010: JP Morgan Chase Bank v Mystras Maritime Corporation, 2010 FC 1053

27 Aug 2010: Hitachi Maxco Ltd. v Dolphin Logistics Company Ltd., 2010 FC 853

23 Aug 2010: Kotai v Queen of the North (Ship), 2010 BCSC 1180

24 Jun 2010: Alpha Trading Monaco Sam v. Sarah Desgagnés (Ship), 2010 FC 695

10 Jun 2010: F.V. Independence (Ship), 2010 FC 634

14 Apr 2010: Keybank National Association v Atchafalaya (Ship) 2010 FC 406

06 Apr 2010: Labki Finance Ltd v Glovertown Shipyards Ltd 2010 NLTD 71

31 Mar 2010: McDermott Gulf Company v Oceanographia Sociedad Anonima de Capital Variable 2010 NSSC 118

22 Feb 2010: Shields Fuels Inc v More Marine Ltd 2010 FC 228

2009

22 Dec 2009: Aozora Bank Ltd v Yosemite Ltd [2009] FC 1307

10 Dec 2009: Morecup Holdings Ltd v Island Tug & Barge Ltd [2009] BCSC 1692

08 Apr 2009: Laichwiltach Enterprises Ltd v F/V Pacific Faith (Ship) [2009] BCCA 157

17 Mar 2009: Admiralty action in rem v M/V Atchafalaya (Ship) [2009] FC 273

13 Feb 2009: Hodder Tugboat Co Ltd v JJM Constructions Ltd [2009] FC 161

2008

24 Dec 2008: McDonald v Queen of the North (Ship) [2008] BCSC 1777

12 Dec 2008: Kent Trade and Finance Inc v JPMorgan Chase Bank [2008] FCA 399

21 Oct 2008: Kotai v Queen of the North (Ship) [2008] BCSC 1398

03 Oct 2008: Canada v Ship-source Oil Pollution Fund [2008] FC 1094

18 Apr 2008: Wilcox v Miss Megan (Ship) [2008] FC 506

06 Mar 2008: Laichwiltach Enterprises Ltd v F/V Pacific Faith (Ship) [2008] BCSC 282

2007

21 Dec 2007: Laichkwiltach Enterprises Ltd v The Ship "Pacific Faith" [2007] BCSC 1852
ADMIRALTY - collision - whether defendant negligent.
DAMAGES - economic loss - whether plaintiff entitled to recover lost wages for captain and crew from defendant as result of collision.

04 Dec 2007: Kremikovtzki Trade v Phoenix Bulk Carriers Ltd [2007] FCA 381
ADMIRALTY - cargo of coal arrested - whether arrested cargo was subject of the action - whether the charterer was beneficial owner of the cargo.
PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE - whether affidavit of Lead Warrant to arrest cargo complied with Rule 481(2) of Federal Court Rules.

14 Sep 2007: Mazda Canada Inc v Mitsui OSK Lines Co Ltd [2007] FC 916
SHIPPING - salvage - whether cargo interest entitled to indemnity for contribution to salvage.
BILLS OF LADING - carriage of goods - where bill specified choice of law clause - reconciliation with s 46 of the Marine Liability Act - forum non conveniens.

18 May 2007: Maritima de Ecologica SA de CV v The Ship "Maersk Defender" [2007] FCA 194
ARBITRATION - appellant entered into BIMCO time charter on undertaking of respondent to purchase vessel - vessel not purchased - appellant sought to invoke London arbitration clause against charterer.
ADMIRALTY - whether action could proceed in rem or in personam.

16 May 2007: AGF MAT v Ocean Masters Inc [2007] NLCA 35
MARINE INSURANCE - insured vessel returning from voyage beyond limits of classification when destroyed by fire - whether insurer entitled to refuse indemnity on grounds of breach of warranty of legality.

24 Apr 2007: Nordea Bank Norge ASA v The Ship "Kinguk" [2007] FC 434
ADMIRALITY AND MARITIME - arrest and sale of vessel - priority of satisfaction of claims - where creditor assumed obligations and expenses of admiralty marshall - calculation of interest rate on proceeds of sale.

19 Apr 2007: Ocean Navigation Inc v Abitibi-Consolidated Inc [2007] FC 413
ADMIRALTY AND MARITIME - practice and procedure - application for further and better particulars to defence.

16 Feb 2007: Hansen v The Ship "Trinity" [2007] BCSC 225
ADMIRALTY AND MARITIME - action in rem - application to set aside warrant for arrest - failure to disclose relevant matters at ex parte hearing - whether prior refusal of Mareva injunction a relevant matter.

29 Jan 2007: Nanaimo Harbour Link Corporation v Abakhan & Associates Inc [2007] BSCS 109
ADMIRALTY AND MARITIME - arrest and sale of vessel - priority of satisfaction of claims - nature of maritime lien as claim in rem - whether maritime law applies to purely intra-provincial sea travel - interrelation between maritime law and Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act 1985.

17 Jan 2007: Omega Salmon Group Ltd v The Ship "Pubnico Gemini" [2007] BCCA 33
ADMIRALTY AND MARITIME - collision - method of calculation of interest on damages.

2006

15 Sep 2006: Addo v OT Africa Line, 2006 FC 1099
CARRIERS - negligence - damage to cargo in dropped container - whether there is Canadian jurisdiction over a maritime case - held, the court has jurisdiction. Defendant's activity of transferring the container while in transit from Montreal to Ghana is "integrally connected" to maritime matters and to Canada. Foreign location of a cause of action does not exclude the Federal Court from taking jurisdiction.

01 Sep 2006: Canadian Sub Sea Hydraulics Ltd v "Cormorant" (The), 2006 FC 1051
ADMIRALTY - personal property - arrest of defendant's ship as security - plaintiff claims defendant failed to pay charges for services rendered - setting of bail for the release of ship - security ordinarily measured by plaintiff's reasonably arguable best case capped at the value of the vessel - since court will not enquire into the merits of the claim at this stage, the reasonably arguable best case is what the plaintiff asserts - however, the court can assess the reasonableness of the plaintiff's claim - held, bail for the release of the ship set at one half of the amount of the plaintiff's claim plus costs, given allegations by defendant through counterclaim of misconduct on the part of the plaintiff that went unchallenged.

23 Aug 2006: Magic Sportswear Corp. v. OT Africa Line Ltd, 2006 FCA 284
CARRIAGE OF GOODS - loss of cargo - conflict of laws - Hamburg Rules - s 46(1) of the Marine Liability Act (giving Canadian courts jurisdiction to hear claims by Canadian shippers, even where the contract for the carriage of goods provides for the adjudication or arbitration of claims in a place other than Canada) - whether dispute over cargo loss should be resolved in the High Court in London, as the contract provides, or in the Federal Court, which has jurisdiction under subsection 46(1) - held, s 46(1) does not remove the Court's discretion to decline to exercise its jurisdiction on the ground that it is not the more convenient forum. Foreign judgments and contractual foreign exclusive forum clauses must be taken into account in the forum non conveniens analysis. Shipper's action in Federal Court should be stayed as the Federal Court is a less convenient forum than the High Court in London for this dispute.

23 Aug 2006: OT Africa Line Ltd v. Magic Sporstwear Corp 2006 FCA 284
CARRIAGE OF GOODS - conflict of laws - whether dispute over alleged cargo loss should be resolved in London, as the contract provides, or in the Federal Court, which has jurisdiction by virtue of s46(1) of Marine Liability Act - s46(1) does not remove the Court's discretion to decline to exercise its jurisdiction on the ground that it is not the more convenient forum - trial judge wrong to conclude that the English decisions establishing English jurisdiction and the parties' choice of forum were irrelevant to the forum non conveniens analysis - based on these considerations and the conclusion that the facts connecting the dispute to England were stronger than those connecting it to Canada, England was the more convenient forum.

28 Jun 2006: Nelson Marketing International Inc v. Royal & Sun Alliance Insurance Co of Canada 2006 BCCA 327
MARINE INSURANCE - "all risks" policy - damage to goods - whether insured proved that the loss was caused by an insured peril - insufficient evidence of the weather conditions to conclude that the loss was caused by an external fortuitous occurrence as required to fall under an "all risks" policy.

30 Jun 2006: Secunda Marine Services Ltd v. Liberty Mutual Insurance Company 2006 NSCA 82
MARINE INSURANCE - vessel lost propeller shaft - insurers appeal decision that they required to indemnify the respondents - insurers claim that respondent's lack of due diligence caused the shaft to break - burden is on insurer to establish lack of due diligence - respondents had followed standard practice and regulations - appeal dismissed

26 Jun 2006: Phoenix Bulk Carriers Ltd v "M/V Swift Fortune" (The), 2006 FCA 240
ADMIRALTY - maritime jurisdiction of the Federal Court - carriage of goods - a party's right to arrest property where the "subject of the action" is a charter-party and personal actions of defendants - whether there is required a nexus or causal relationship between action and ship and cargo arrested - held, leave to appeal to the Supreme Court of Canada granted given divergent views taken by panels of the Court on the issue.

21 Jun 2006: Fieldturf Inc. v Recovery Technologies of Pennsylvania Inc 2006 NSSC 197
FORUM NON CONVENIENS - attempt to strike out proceedings on basis that they were contrary to a choice of forum provision in the "supply agreement" and that the court was forum non conveniens - action stayed as plaintiff did not pursue alternative dispute resolution which was a prerequisite to legal proceedings under the agreement - plaintiff failed to establish a strong case for departing from the choice of forum provision - Nova Scotia was forum non conveniens as contract was signed, witnessed were located, and broader disputes were centred in Ontario.

15 Jun 2006: Calogeras & Master Supplies Inc v. Ceres Hellenic Shipping Enterprises Ltd 2006 FC 764
BAIL - defendant sought order reducing amount of bail for release or to prevent the arrest of the in rem defendants - plaintiff is prima facie entitled to such security as will cover the amounts claimed in its statement of claim and affidavit to lead warrant - no reduction in bail as the plaintiff established that it had a prima face case and defendant failed to show that the plaintiff did not have a reasonably arguable case for the amounts.

08 May 2006: Beasse et al v Holness et al 2006 BCSC 1265
MARINE INSURANCE - in initial proceedings the plaintiff alleged that the insurer improperly refused to pay insurance claim - now alleges that its solicitors were negligent in that action - security for costs ordered against plaintiff as defendant had arguable defence.

18 Apr 2006: Putjotik Fisheries Ltd v Mersey Viking (Ship ) 2006 FC 491
ADMIRALTY - action in rem - action in personam - dismissed because of undue delay in prosecuting action - unjustified non-compliance with orders of court

10 Apr 2006: Mercury Launch & Tug Ltd v Texada Quarrying Ltd 2006 FC 464
NEGLIGENCE - transport agreement - bailee of barge - duty to provide safe berth - barge broke moorings and grounded resulting in damage -defendant dock owner did not have sufficient possession or control to be bailee - burden on plaintiff - defendant not negligent in not volunteering information about weather conditions in absence of inquiry by master.

31 Mar 2006: GTI E&P Services Canada Inc v Stolt-Nielsen Transportation Group BV 2006 ABQB 240
BILL OF LADING - plaintiff sought summary judgment for loss of chemical due to leak in container resulting in dumping of chemical, summary judgment refused as were triable issues including - privity of contract - who carried risk of loss - whether seller/shipper was negligent in initial handling and packaging of goods - limitation of liability.

29 Mar 2006: JP Morgan Chase Bank v Mystras Maritime Corporation 2006 FC 409
ADMIRALTY - action in rem - mortgage - priority of claims on sale of ship - priority of mortgage above supply of necessities in absence of lien -application of US law to necessities supplied in US.

27 Mar 2006: Sumisho Reftech Co Ltd v Great Pride (Ship) 2006 FC 388
ADMIRALTY - stay of proceedings - forum non conveniens - action time-barred in Japan and China - action governed by Chinese law and witnesses in China - no connection to Canada - stay granted subject to defendant waiving time-bar.

20 Feb 2006: Niagara Gorge Jet Boating Ltd v Axa Canada Inc 2006 CanLII 4762
MARINE INSURANCE -breach of warranty - failure to give notice - statutory and equitable relief.

07 Feb 2006: Wappen-Reederei GMBH & CO. K.G. v Hyde Park (Ship), 2006 FC 150
COLLISION - voyage date recorder ('black box') - Transportation Accident Investigation and Safety Board (TSB) seized black box for investigation and refused to release a copy claiming privilege - plaintiff owner/operators sought original of the recordings from TSB and confidentiality of recordings - motion denied except for radio recordings - insufficient evidence that black box recordings provided necessary or even useful evidence.

11 Jan 2006: Front Carriers Ltd v Atlantic & Orient Shipping Corporation, 2006 FC 18
PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE - Mareva injunction - arbitration pending in UK- repudiation of charterparty.

06 Jan 2006: Kremikovtzi Trade v Phoenix Bulk Carriers Ltd 2006 FCA 1
ADMIRALTY - action in rem - Federal Court Act 1985 ss 22, 43 -contract of affreightment - subject and cause of action - arrest of cargo - arrest of ship set aside as no "nexus or causal relationship" between action and the ship/cargo arrested - nexus between action and ship/cargo "merely incidental or fortuitous".

2005

22 Nov 2005: Gearbulk Pool Limited et al v Seaboard Shipping Company Limited et al 2005 BCSC 1620
action for indemnity, contaminated cargo, breach of contract, breach of duty as bailees and common carriers for hire and negligence, Hague-Visby Rules Articles I(c), III.8, definition of 'goods', variance between the bills of lading, estoppel

21 Nov 2005: North King Lodge Ltd v Gowlland Towing Ltd 2005 BCCA 557
towing vessel, mooring, vessel sank, trespass, bailment, time charter

18 Nov 2005: Secunda Marine Services Ltd. v Fabco Industries Ltd. 2005 FC 1565
marine insurance, builders' risk policy, whether underwriters are barred/prohibited from seeking subrogated recovery against a contractor who damaged the ship, marine insurance distinct from other insurance

31 Oct 2005: Shtutman v Oceane Marine Shipping Inc 2005 FC 1471
cargo claim, container misdelivered or stolen, proof of loss, custody, exclusion or limitation of liability clause in bill of lading, Hague-Visby Rules Article III.8 and VII, freedom to contract before and after mandatory application of Hague-Visby Rules

07 Oct 2005: 566935 BC Ltd. dba West Coast Resorts v Allianz Insurance Company of Canada 2005 BCSC 1408
marine insurance, wooden barge sank whilst moored, underwriters, ordinary wear and tear, due diligence, peril of the sea

04 Aug 2005: Canada el al v Berhad et al 2005 FCA 267
negligent detention of ship, seaworthiness, corrosion, SOLAS, Memorandum of Understanding on Port State Control in the Asia-Pacific Region, repairs

26 Jul 2005: Pereira v Canada (Attorney General) 2005 FC 1011
Estai, seizure, foreign fishing vessel, high seas, legality of Canada's boarding foreign vessel in international waters, reckless conduct of Canadian vessels, Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization, UNCLOS - Articles 3, 57. 87-90, straddling stock

29 Jun 2005: Secunda Marine Services Ltd v Liberty Mutual Insurance Company 2005 NSSC 180
insurance, clause requiring due diligence in inspection of vessel, broken propeller shaft

15 Apr 2005: Elders Grain Company Ltd v The vessel N/V 'Ralph Misener' [2005] FCA 135
Cargo claim - discussion of buden of proof

31 Mar 2005: Ford Aquitaine Industries SAS v Canmar Pride (Ship) 2005 FC 431
loss or damage of containers/cargo, limitation of liability - Hague-Visby Rules and Carriage of Goods by Sea Act (US) (COGSA), forum non conveniens

25 May 2005: Nelson Marketing International Inc v Royal & Sun Alliance Insurance Company of Canada 2005 BCSC 772
damaged cargo, underwriters, 'all risks' insurance policy, duty of utmost good faith, indemnification

16 Feb 2005: I.C.S. Petroleum (Montreal) Ltd. v Dauphins du St-Laurent 2005 FC 251

10 Feb 2005: Kona Concept Inc. v Guimond Boats Ltd. 2005 FC 214

06 May 2005: Simms v Isen [2005] FCA 161
Whether personal injury a maritime matter

08 Apr 2005: Pan Liberty Navigation Co Ltd v World Link (HK) Resources Ltd 2005 BCCA 206
charter party, defaulting charterer, arbitration, Mareva injunction, dispute under the charter party

17 Mar 2005: JPMorgan Chase Bank v Mystras Maritime Corp. 2005 FC 383

2 Mar 2005: Trans-Pacific Shipping Co. v Atlantic & Orient Trust Co. Ltd. 2005 FC 311

9 Feb 2005: Stella-Jones Inc. c. Hawknet Ltd. 2005 CF 206

20 Jan 2005: Franklin Lumber Ltd. v Essington II, (Ship) 2005 FC 95

14 Jan 2005: Navigation Madeleine Inc. c. Canada (Procureur général) 2005 CAF 10

12 Jan 2005: Thyssenkrupp Materials Na Inc. v Stewart Island (Ship) 2005 FC 23

2004

15 Dec 2004: Gilling v Cox 2004 FC 1743
ADMIRALTY - bill of sale - conversion - sale of yacht to third party purportedly pursuant to a power of attorney - declaration that plaintiff the owner of vessel and that sale void - plaintiff negotiated a settlement with third party purchaser to recover yacht - sale made by defendant in lieu of monies owed by plaintiff - entitlement of defendant to damages.

10 Dec 2004: Dongnam Oil & Fats Co v Chemex Ltd 2004 FC 1732
CHARTERPARTY (time and voyage) - amended Vegoilvoy form, with arbitration in London - Commercial Arbitration Code, Article 8 - damage to cargo - cargo owner claimed against head charterer and owner of vessel - head charter and voyage charter provided for arbitration in London - arbitration provisions not overridden by Marine Liability Act s 46 - whether arbitration agreements effective.

03 Dec 2004: Kusugak v Northern Transportation Co 2004 FC 1696
MARITIME JURISDICTION - whether maritime jurisdiction invoked by claim for loss of life arising from the sinking of vessel - failure to employ a system for responding to maritime emergencies - whether an existing body of federal law essential to the disposition of the claim - claim governed by the common law of negligence not maritime law - fact that claim involved a ship was insufficient to give rise to a claim in maritime law in absence of allegation that defendants had any involvement with or responsibility for the operation, control, or possession of the ship.

26 Oct 2004: Foresight Shipping Co v Union of India 2004 FC 1501
ARBITRATION - whether applicant entitled to seize and sell a ship of state-owned company in satisfaction of an arbitral award it obtained against the Union of India - corporate personality - conflict of laws - whether under Indian law the state-owned company was the alter ego or instrumentality of India - whether circumstances warrant piercing of corporate veil.

22 Sep 2004: Forestex Management Corp v Lloyd's 2004 FC 1303
MARINE INSURANCE - grounding and loss of ship - constructive total loss - hull and machinery underwriters denied coverage for breach of trading limits - action on hull dismissed for delay - plaintiff began new action alleging bad faith on part of the insurers - whether there is a reasonable cause of action for bad faith where no initial finding of liability has been made.

20 Sep 2004: TJ Inspection Services v Halifax Shipyards 2004 NSSC 181
LIEN - whether a component of an offshore gas production platform and/or the land upon which it was constructed can be liened under Mechanics' Lien Act RS c 277 ( Nova Scotia) - whether production platform can be characterised as a vessel or an erection.

27 Aug 2004: Re Otello Manship (Ship) 2004 FC 1181
Review of prothonotary's decision setting the amount of security for release of vessel from arrest - defendant had contracted to sell vessel then extended delivery date, failed to deliver the vessel and encumbered the vessel with a charterparty that prevented the plaintiff taking possession of the vessel - prothonotary's bail decision upheld.

23 Aug 2004: Magic Sportswear Corp. v OT Africa Line Ltd 2004 FC 1165; [2005] 2 FC 236
MARITIME JURISDICTION - carriage of goods - partial loss of cargo - bill of lading forum selection clause - Marine Liability Act s 46(1) - forum non conveniens - whether the plaintiffs entitled to have their cargo claim adjudicated by one of Federal Court's prothonotaries.

09 Jun 2004: Lloyd's Register North America Inc. v Dalziel 2004 FC 822
MARITIME JURISDICTION - review of jurisdiction of an adjudicator under Canada Labour Code - claim of constructive dismissal by marine surveyor against employer, Lloyd's - whether adjudicator had jurisdiction under federal employment law as Lloyd's were within the exceptional class of activities that fall under federal jurisdiction as being integral to the federally regulated area of shipping - role of classification societies includes activities delegated by federal regulatory authorities.

31 May 2004: Royal Bank of Scotland v Golden Trinity (Ship) 2004 FC 795
MARITIME LAW - priorities among competing claims against vessels - supply of bunkers - choice of law clause - maritime lien - sister ship arrest jurisdiction - Federal Court Act s 43(8) - whether same beneficial owner - look behind registered ownership - forbearance of mortgagee did not warrant equitable reordering of priorities so that necessaries suppliers outrank mortgagee.

17 May 2004: Brooks Aviation Inc. v Boeing SB-17G 2004 FC 710; [2005] 1 FC 352
MARITIME LAW - salvage - action in rem against historic wreck - Canada Shipping Act s 2(d) - whether in possession - whether had maritime lien for salvage services - whether entitled to a salvage award or be declared the aircraft's sole owner - plaintiff not salvor in possession nor entitled to maritime lien as had not undertaken activities necessary to place it in possession - acknowledged that plaintiff first finder, could protect interests by injunction - salvor to deliver wreck to Receiver of Wrecks.

05 Apr 2004: Berhad v Canada 2004 FC 501
SHIPPING AND NAVIGATION - safety at sea - Port State Control - Memorandum of Understanding on Port State Control in the Asia-Pacific - SOLAS - negligent detention of Malaysian registered vessel.

13 Feb 2004: Isen v Simms 2004 FC 227
MARITIME JURISDICTION - personal injury - limitation of liability - Canada Shipping Act ss 577, 581 - ship less than 300 tons - whether incident occurring when ship on land sufficiently connected with maritime jurisdiction - consideration of phrase 'involving a ship'.

09 Feb 2004: 1340232 Ontario Inc. v St. Lawrence Seaway Management Corp 2004 FC 209
NEGLIGENCE - economic loss - duty of care - action for business losses resulting from the closure of bridge due to alleged negligence of defendant - defendant lowered bridge onto a vessel causing damage to the bridge - merchant in nearby town lost business.

2003

30 Apr 2003: Island Tug & Barge Ltd v Communication, Energy and Paperworkers Union 2003 BCCA 247
JURISDICTION - appellant sought injunction to restrain industrial action that affected its business which involved the operation of tugs and barges - appellants argued their business was a federal undertaking to which provincial labor relations legislation had no application - exclusive federal jurisdiction over navigation and shipping did not extend to undertakings carried on entirely within the boundaries of a single province, except insofar as the actual shipping aspect of the operation was concerned.

16 Apr 2003: Norgate Marine Management Inc. v Conti Will (Ship) 2003 FCT 444
ADMIRALTY - bail and security - determination of amount of performance bond - bond equal to secured party's reasonably arguable best case - components of plaintiff's claim were only estimates - plaintiff's evidence incomplete.

17 Apr 2003: North Coast Sea Products Ltd v ING Insurance Co of Canada 2003 BCSC 592
MARINE INSURANCE - hull and machinery policy - policy covered equipment used to grow oysters but not the oysters - equipment and oysters sank to bottom of bay - divers retrieved equipment and oysters with no additional effort - sue and labour clause - whether plaintiff's recovery of sue and labor expenses should be calculated on pro rata basis comparing values of the insured equipment and uninsured oysters - restriction in policy applied only to under-insured losses not uninsured losses therefore insured entitled to sue and labor expenses.

24 Mar 2003: Continental Insurance Co v Almassa International Inc(2003) 46 CCLI 3d 206
MARINE INSURANCE - marine open cargo policy -cargo damaged due to unexpected delay and poor ventilation - court found that damage was caused by failure to ventilate and so did not fall within an exclusion for damage caused by delay - in the alternative found concurrent causes - where insurance covers one concurrent cause and other cause excluded the loss is covered unless the policy expressly provided to the contrary - punitive damages - bad faith.

6 Mar 2003: Dixon v Leggat [2003] 169 OAC 133
ADMIRALTY - collision - motor boat collided with small island, personal injury and death, operator liable but limited his liability under the Canada Shipping Act, trial judge's finding that the owner was also liable due to s566 of Canada Shipping Act was incorrect as s566 has no application to accidents involving only one vessel, further s566 does not impose liability but makes liability joint and several amongst owners of a vessel where it had been already found

28 Jan 2003: Strachan v The Constant Craving 2003 FCT 86
MARINE INSURANCE - negligence - claim for damage to vessel resulting from explosion and fire aboard another vessel - damages - inconvenience or loss of use - collateral benefit - 'private insurance exception' to the collateral benefits rule - insurance proceeds not considered a collateral benefit.

24 Jan 2003: Early Recovered Resources Inc v Gulf Log Salvage Co-operative Association 2003 FCA 35
MARINE LAW - marine log salvage - constitutionality of Part IX of the British Columbia Forest Act and regulations made thereunder - whether salvage is a matter of exclusive federal jurisdiction - International Convention on Salvage 1989 as incorporated in Canada Shipping Act - definition of salvage - whether the provincial legislation had a sufficient connection to shipping.

21 Jan 2003: Timberwest Forest Ltd v Gearbulk Pool Ltd 2003 BCCA 39
MARINE INSURANCE - bill of lading - cargo damage - whether bills of lading stated with sufficient precision that the cargo would be carried on deck so as to preclude application of Hague-Visby Rules, Article 3 - whether cargo fell within Hague-Visby definition of 'goods', Article 1(c).

21 Jan 2003: Pan Ocean Shipping Co Ltd v The Tuloma 2003 FCT 56
CHARTERPARTY (time) - failure make the ship fit for required service - ship not permitted to discharge its cargo in US - plaintiff charterer exposed to claims for physical damage to cargo and possible claims for late delivery/loss of market - quantum of security for release of vessel from arrest.

21 Jan 2003: NHM International Inc v The All Risks 2003 FCT 53
ADMIRALTY - action in rem - bail - consideration of security - shipbuilding contract - plaintiff mortgagee entered into possession and had vessel arrested after delays and alleged deficiencies in construction - bail sought by defendant was exorbitant, oppressive and abusive.

14 Jan 2003: Nestle Canada Inc v The Viljandi 2003 FCT 28
STAY OF PROCEEDINGS - bill of lading specified US jurisdiction - Marine Liability Act s 46(1) - Canadian proceedings continued.

13 Jan 2003: Canada v The Delta Pride 2003 FCT 11
ADMIRALTY - damage to government-owned floating breakwater due to alleged negligent operation of vessel - vessel navigating with assistance of two tugs, one of which contacted and damaged the breakwater - vessel owner sought to pass liability argued liability to tug owner - presumption that the tug is the servant of the tow and that the tow is in control of tug - quantum of damages.

09 Jan 2003: Friesen v Norwegian Cruise Lines Inc 2003 BCSC 256
ADMIRALTY - personal injury - claim against owners of vessel - forum non conveniens - ticket contained clause conferring exclusive jurisdiction on Florida courts - Athens Convention inapplicable at time of accident - whether reasonable steps to alert plaintiff of clause on ticket - balance of convenience led to accepting jurisdiction.

09 Jan 2003: Secunda Marine Services Ltd v Canada (Transport Canada Marine Safety) 2003 NSSC 2
Judicial review of a decision by Transport Canada steamship inspectors not to issue a letter of compliance confirming that the vessel met the Canadian Coast Guard Standards Respecting Standby Vessels - whether provincial superior court had jurisdiction to consider the application - inspectors acting under parallel federal and provincial legislation.

2002

02 Dec 2002: Incremona-Salerno Marmi Affini Siciliani (ISMAS) snc v The Castor 2002 FCA 479; [2003] 3 FC 220
action for cargo damage, defendant filed an application for a stay pursuant to a clause in the bill of lading referring all disputes to the courts of Hamburg, relevant events all pre-dated the entry into force of the Marine Liability Act, s46 provides that a claimant may institute proceedings in Canada in certain circumstances despite a clause referring disputes to foreign courts, as s46 was not in force when the action was commenced it could not be applied to reach into the past and alter the parties' rights

29 Nov 2002: Kirgan Holding SA v The Panamax Leader 2002 FCT 1235
plaintiff arrested vessel claiming unpaid accounts for the supply of bunkers, fuel was supplied at the request of the agent of bareboat charterers, both charterer and agent were bankrupt, owners of vessel disputed their liability and the plaintiff's right to arrest the vessel on the basis that neither the charterer nor its agent was acting upon owner's authority in contracting for bunkers, plaintiff relied on US law which provides that a necessaries supplier has a maritime lien against a vessel and that a charterer or its agent is presumed to have authority to contract on the credit of the vessel unless the supplier has actual notice of lack of authority, whether US applies, no connections between the parties or the bunkers and the US, however the contract pursuant to which the bunkers were supplied provided it would be governed by US law, court deferred to the contractual choice of law provision in the absence of strong reasons for departing from it

13 Nov 2002: Trawlercat Marine Inc v The Amity 2002 FCT 1181; (2002), 22 C.P.R. (4th) 515
plaintiffs commenced action in rem against a partially completed catamaran and action in personam against her owner, claimed breach of a contract to execute a construction agreement, also claimed breach of copyright and related intellectual property remedies, defendants moved to strike the in rem proceedings, no basis for this proceeding to be brought in rem, plans for a ship that did not yet exist could not be characterized as goods or materials or services for the operation or maintenance of a ship, plaintiff's contractual claim was a claim alleging breach of an agreement to enter into a construction contract and not breach of a construction contract itself, in rem action struck out

13 Nov 2002: Saskatchewan Wheat Pool v Armonikos Corporation Ltd 2002 FCA 444
appellant applied to stay trial decision pending the outcome of the appeal so as to stop the respondent from pursuing London arbitration proceedings, respondent had sought a declaration that the ship was chartered to the appellant and that the charter party contained a London arbitration clause, trial judge ruled in favour of respondent and directed counsel to prepare a draft judgment, judgment was not prepared and the respondent instituted London arbitration proceedings, appellant objected on the basis that it was premature to institute arbitration proceedings before judgment was filed, serious issue to be tried, appellant would suffer irreparable harm if stay not granted, balance of convenience favoured granting the stay, appellant prepared to post security

06 Nov 2002: Champion International Corp v The Sabina 2002 FCT 1122
contract for carriage of goods, all commercial terms apart from lay days and precise volume of cargo had been agreed, before remaining points resolved the defendant's agents suspended negotiations as they had been offered a time charter at a rate too good to refuse, plaintiff obliged to charter a substitute vessel at a higher freight rate, whether negotiations between plaintiff cargo interests and defendant vessel interests resulted in a concluded fixture for the carriage of cargo, whether meeting of the minds on all significant terms, lay days and cargo volume terms not considered significant, defendant's agent characterized them as 'loose ends', defendant negotiating with third party and plaintiff at the same time without informing the plaintiff's agents

30 Aug 2002: Striebel v The Chairman 2002 FCT 925, affirmed, 2002 FCT 995
application to set bail for release of yacht, claim had been brought against vessel by builders after plaintiff owners terminated building contract, builder estimated its profit on the payments remaining due to be $1.8 million, to cover its claim plus interest and costs the builders sought $2 million in security, generally bail is to cover the secured party's reasonably arguable best case including interests and costs limited by the value of the vessel, in light of the vessel owners defence that the time and costs expended in completing the vessel were substantially more than suggested by the builder the court was satisfied that the builder's claim would not succeed in the amount presented, the security sought was therefore oppressive, sufficient security was $1 million

16 Jul 2002: Cyber Sea Technologies, Inc. v Underwater Harvester Remotely Operated 2002 FCT 794; [2003] 1 FC 569
whether Federal Court had jurisdiction over a dispute between builder of a submersible logging device and its owner, whether the claim was within the Federal Court's jurisdiction over navigation and shipping, dependant upon whether the submersible fell within the definition of a 'ship' in s2 of the Federal Court Act, definition very broad and seemingly encompassed anything used on or in the water, court concluded the submersible was in all likelihood a ship but left open the possibility for this issue to be reconsidered at trial

9 Jul 2002: Atlantic Cement Carriers Ltd v Atlantic Towing Ltd 2002 FCT 761
action by owner of barge against owner of tug arising from loss of barge and cargo, application for a stay of the action, clause in governing Towcon agreement provided that disputes were to be referred to London where the tug owners had recently filed a claim, s46 of Marine Liability Act held not to apply as it applied to contracts for the carriage of goods by water and the Towcon agreement was a contract for towage, no strong reasons to depart from parties' contractual choice of jurisdiction, applicant's had genuine desire for trial in London evidenced by commencement of proceedings

14 Jun 2002: Pacifica Papers Inc v The Haida Monarch 2002 FCT 676
marine insurance, loss of insured cargo, action against vessel and owners who defended on the basis that they were 'insureds' under the applicable policy, contract of carriage provided that defendant was to maintain insurance on the vessel, plaintiff was to maintain all risk insurance on the cargo, each party's insurance policy was to contain an express waiver of subrogation with respect to the other party, except that any waiver of subrogation in favour of vessel interests was not to apply to loss or damage caused by unseaworthiness, cargo policy named as insured the plaintiff and others for whom they had instructions to insure, policy also waived subrogation rights against the insured and stipulated that between the insurers and the insured the seaworthiness of the vessel was admitted, held that none of these terms amounted to an instruction to the plaintiff to insure the defendants, the limitation on the waiver of subrogation relating to unseaworthiness would have precluded naming the defendants as insureds, but question of whether defendants were 'insureds' too complex for summary judgment

24 May 2002: Mariana Maritime SA v Stella Jones Inc 2002 FCA 215
shipowners sought to stay cargo claim and refer it to arbitration in London, prior to shipment a booking note was signed by the parties which provided it would prevail over previous arrangements but would be superseded by bill of lading, cargo loaded and bill of lading issued in standard Conline form with the addition of an arbitration clause as an amendment, some of cargo not accepted at destination so shipowners agreed to return it to Canada, agreement was an addendum to the booking note, fire on return voyage resulted in loss of cargo, held that no arbitration agreement between the parties, neither the booking note nor the standard Conline bill of lading contained an arbitration clause, the arbitration clause that was added to the standard Conline bill of lading had not been agreed to by the parties and did not form part of the contract

05 Apr 2002: Normandeau v Lévesque Estate 2002 FCT 369
fisherman killed in wreck, action by fisherman's parents against estate of vessel's owner who was the fisherman's employer, defendants moved for summary judgement on basis that action barred by provincial legislation, plaintiff's response was that Canadian maritime law is a body of federal law leaving no scope for the application of provincial legislation, court held that this was not an issue to be decided on an application for summary judgment but indicated that provincial legislation should be read so as not to impede the full application of Canadian maritime law

22 Mar 2002: Richardson International Ltd v The Mys Chikhacheva 2002 FCA 97; [2002] 4 FC 80
plaintiff company incorporated in Washington State, entered into an agreement pursuant to which it loaned money to a Russian corporation for refitting a factory processing ship and providing essentials to that vessel and two trawlers, plaintiff to have the exclusive right to market the products from the vessels until the debt repaid and was granted a mortgage on the factory processing ship, plaintiff also supplied fuel and provisions to the vessels and paid certain salaries and travel expenses, Russian corporation breached agreement by selling the production to third parties, Russian corporation entered into bankruptcy in Russia, plaintiff arrested one of trawlers in BC, this action defended by the true owner of the vessel, whether the defendant vessel was liable in rem for the plaintiff's claims which would require application of a maritime lien under US laws, determination of proper law governing the claim, trial judge found that the claim was governed by US maritime law and that such laws established an entitlement to a maritime lien, held on appeal that it was appropriate for the trial judge to have considered the totality of the contractual relationships between the parties but even if the marketing contract was considered in isolation US law was the system of law with which it had the closest and most substantial connection

20 Feb 2002: Early Recovered Resources Inc. v Gulf Log Salvage Cooperative Association 2002 FCT 184; [2002] 4 FC 626
plaintiff brought action against inter alia the provincial government seeking compensation for salvage of certain logs, government moved for summary judgment on the basis that the claim was not within Canadian maritime law and was thus outside Federal Court's jurisdiction, International Convention on Salvage 1989 Articles 1 & 19, court concluded that federal parliament had legislated so as to extend the concept of maritime salvage to property such as logs and booms of logs, dismissed the government's application, the finding of the applicability of the federal legislation excluded the application of provincial legislation on the subject of log salvage

11 Feb 2002: Conohan v The Cooperators 2002 FCA 60; [2002] 3 FC 421
marine insurance, collision, claim by owner of fishing vessel against insurer of other fishing vessel, owner of other vessel admitted liability and assigned to plaintiff his rights against insurers, insurer denied liability, clause in policy provided that the insured's liability was invoked if the vessel collided with another vessel and as a consequence the insured had become liable to pay and did pay damages, ordinary meaning of the words required that payment first be made to the third party as a condition precedent to recovery under the policy, as the insured had not paid the claim the insurer was not obliged to do so

08 Feb 2002: Global Enterprises International Inc v The Aquarius 2002 FCT 150
whether plaintiff's costs and expenses should be afforded the status of marshal's expenses and therefore be paid with priority from the proceeds of sale of a number of vessels, plaintiff arranged berthing for the ships not as an agent of the vessel owners but by contracting directly as a principal with the operator of the facilities and then contracting separately with vessel owners, amount charged included the cost to the plaintiff plus a mark up for profit, profit component could not be characterized as its reasonable costs and expenses, only the amount the plaintiff had to pay to the operator of the berth facilities were given priority as marshal's expenses

29 Jan 2002: Samuel Son & Co Ltd v The Kapitonas Gudin 2002 FCT 101
action for cargo damage, cargo wet and some quantity of water was observed in ship's holds, plaintiff alleged the damage caused by seawater ingress to the vessel's holds, defendants argued the wetting of the cargo either occurred prior to loading or as a result of condensation during carriage, plaintiff has initial burden to demonstrate the goods were tendered for loading in good condition, clean bill of lading is generally prima facie proof of this, bill of lading was claused 'Rust stained. Wet before shipment', plaintiff nevertheless established the defendants' were negligent and that such negligence was the proximate cause of the damage through survey evidence, defendant argued that as the cargo was already damaged any further damage caused by carrier's negligence did not cause the plaintiff any loss, this argument was rejected as where loss is caused by the concurrent causative effects of an excepted and a non-excepted peril the carrier remains liable for the entire loss unless it can prove that certain severable components of the loss were caused by the excepted peril alone

22 Jan 2002: Finansbanken ASA v The GTS Katie 2002 FCT 73, affirmed, 2002 FCT 339
whether the ship's plans and manuals and drawings were subject to mortgage security, ship owner purported to transfer this property to a necessaries supplier to procure the supply of necessaries, mortgagees contested the ability of the ship owner to alienate the ship's documents without their consent, relevant mortgage clause purported to charge all the vessel's appurtenances, 'appurtenances' included whatever can be regarded as necessary to the proper operation of the ship, documents were essential to the operation of the ship and as such were charged by the vessel mortgages

22 Jan 2002: Finansbanken ASA v The GTS Katie 2002 FCT 74
claimant who provided vessel owner with funds to pay master and crew sought to have his claim subrogated to the crew wage lien so that he could recover from the vessel's proceeds of sale before the mortgagees, deficiencies in evidence supporting the claimant's position, conflict of laws, US law did not govern the assignment or subrogation of the crew lien as the payment took place in Canada when the ship was in Canadian territory, fact that the transaction was between two Americans not particularly relevant to the conflict of laws analysis, under Canadian law a wage lien cannot be assigned or subrogated unless the court has first given its consent barring exceptional circumstances, claim failed

21 Jan 2002: Rainbow Technicoloured Wood Veneer Ltd v Guardian Insurance Co of Canada 2002 FCA 28
marine insurance, wood working machine damaged during transport, damage resulted from inadequate securing of the machine inside the container, securing had been performed by a third party contracted by manufacturer of machine at the manufacturer's premises prior to the container being dispatched to port, policy governed by the Institute Cargo Clauses (A) which exclude loss caused by insufficient packing performed prior to the attachment of the insurance, claim failed

2001

20 Dec 2001: Holt Cargo Systems Inc v ABC Containerline NV 2001 SCC 90; [2001] 3 SCR 907;207 DLR (4 th) 577
owner of vessel a Belgian company that declared bankrupt in Antwerp, prior to this the vessel was arrested under a Federal Court warrant in the plaintiff's action to recover outstanding charges for stevedoring provided in the US, vessel sold and proceeds paid into court, Quebec Superior Court recognized the Antwerp bankruptcy judgment and granted an order that proceeds of sale be turned over to the trustees appointed by Belgian court, trustees applied to Federal Court to have this order given effect, court rejected the trustees' position that it was obliged to follow the Quebec order, Supreme Court confirmed that the Federal Court did not lose jurisdiction due to the bankruptcy or the orders of the Quebec court as it was dealing with an in rem claim against a ship, considered whether the Federal Court judge had considered the relevant factors in adjudicating the trustees' application for a stay, whilst there was a lack of substantive connection between dispute and Canada this is common to ships engaged in international maritime commerce, not forum shopping to proceed in court of country where the vessel arrested, maritime lien status to which plaintiff entitled was a legitimate juridical advantage appropriate for the trial judge to take into account in deciding the stay application, trial judge did not refuse to consider any major element appropriate for the determination of the case

17 Dec 2001: Wilson Fishing Co Ltd v Le Western Investor, 2001 FCT 1390
collision during roe herring fishery in which participants attempt to catch as much of this valuable product as possible within brief period, collision between trawler and motor skiff which deploying a net from another vessel, owners of vessel sued trawler to recover costs of net's repair and loss of income, both parties committed a number of errors contributing to collision, final error was that after the collision the trawler captain ordered her engines restarted resulting in the vessel becoming tangled in net, trawler was held wholly responsible for net's damage - deemed to have caused the damage to the net which was not the inevitable consequence of the collision, plaintiffs received damages for net's repair, no loss of income awarded as plaintiffs could not show they would have recovered a catch in this speculative fishery

14 Dec 2001: Imperial Oil Ltd v Petromar Inc 2001 FCA 391; [2002] 3 FC 190; [2001] 209 DLR (4th) 158
dispute arising from supply of marine lubricants to two vessels, no contractual relationship between unpaid supplier and owner of vessels, various American contracts between demise charterers and suppliers, no in rem claim against the vessels under Canadian law, US law would confer a maritime lien against the vessels, which system of law has the closest and most real connection with the claim, in overruling trial decision the court noted many factors linking the transactions to Canada, most importantly the supplies were made in Canada where the vessels were based and traded, Canada benefited more from lubricants than the US, Canadian law therefore applicable so no maritime lien against the vessels

04 Dec 2001: Balcan Ehf v The Atlas 2001 FCT 1328
plaintiff arrested vessel asserting a claim to reimbursement for supply of necessaries, defendant vessel interests applied to strike out the arrest on the basis that the claim did not fall within the court's in rem jurisdiction, supply of necessaries actually made by third party suppliers, plaintiff was the ship's manager and seemed to allege that it had liability to the third party suppliers, as plaintiff neither supplied nor payed for the necessaries and as none of the suppliers had indicated they would sue the plaintiff a necessaries claim could not be established

31 Oct 2001: Porto Seguro Companhia de Seguros Gerais v Belcan SA 2001 FCT 1181
decision on costs, collision action, original trial decision was overturned by Supreme Court - trial judge erred in excluding expert evidence on issues of navigation and seamanship where assessors had been appointed by the court, this exclusionary rule should no longer be followed, Supreme Court awarded plaintiff costs of the appeals in both the Supreme Court and Federal Court of Appeal, action retried, plaintiff's action again dismissed with costs, how the costs of the first trial to be disposed of, defendants argued the general rule is that the costs of the first trial will follow the results of the new trial unless it was necessitated by the fault of a particular party, plaintiff argued that the exception applied as the new trial resulted from the decision of the defendants to oppose the introduction of expert evidence, court concluded this situation did not fall within the limited exception, it was proper for counsel for the defendants to have applied to exclude expert evidence as this was consistent with then prevailing jurisprudence, application did not lead to an aborted trial

25 Sep 2001: Royal and Sun Insurance Co of Canada v The Renegade III 2001 FCT 1050
racing yacht damaged, underwriters paid $110,000 in insurance proceeds but subsequently alleged non-disclosure or misrepresentation, underwriters commenced action and arrested vessel, owners had already begun an action in BC Supreme Court claiming an additional $12,000, owners applied to stay the underwriters' Federal Court action, court held that the defendant would have to show that the continuation of the action would cause them prejudice or injustice, even so the plaintiff could prevent the stay if it showed that the stay would deprive it of a legitimate personal or juridical advantage available to it in the Federal Court, while BC Supreme Court was a convenient forum it was not clearly a more appropriate place for the action, to proceed in rem in the BC Court the underwriters would have had to commence a separate action and re-arrest the vessel, some doubt about constitutionality of the BC Supreme Court's in rem jurisdiction

25 Sep 2001: Mediterranean Shipping Co SA Geneva v Sipco Inc 2001 FCT 1046; [2002] 3 FC 125
plaintiff brought action for recovery of unpaid ocean freight for the carriage of nine containers, defendant counter-claimed and claimed set-off in relation to seven containers one of which did not arrive as scheduled, defendant claimed costs and damages caused by the delay, court held that the defendant cannot raise any claim for losses attributed to the breach of a contract of carriage by way of set-off unless such set-off is provided for in the contract, bill of lading expressly provided there was no right of set-off, counter-claim not time barred by Hague-Visby Rules as it was commenced within one year of the delivery of the delayed seventh container, although the plaintiff was negligent and had breached its contractual commitments the counter-claim was dismissed as the defendant had not established that its alleged losses were suffered as a result of the last container's late arrival

20 Sep 2001: Neves v The Kristina Logos 2001 FCT 1034
vessel seized for violations of Canadian fisheries law, order for forfeiture made but then overturned which was then appealed, also a civil action against the vessel by claimant with mortgage interest and by part-owners of vessel, Crown granted intervenor status and applied to have vessel sold to bring an end to its maintenance and preservation costs, competing claims against proceeds from sale, Crown entitled to first priority for its costs arising from the sale of the ship, mortgage ranked next in priority with interest recoverable from the date of mortgagor's default, none of the other claims gave rise to a maritime lien, but Crown was entitled to recovery of costs incurred for the care of the crew, Crown could also recover its forfeiture award if it was reinstated by the Supreme Court as well as fines as unsecured claims, Crown not entitled to recover its care and preservation costs as these expenses did not arise as a result of the arrest of the ship under the Federal Court process but by virtue of seizure of the vessel under Fisheries Act and then of the Crown's possession as owner of the ship before that order was reversed, balance of the fund was to be split 49% to part-owners and rest to registered owners

28 Aug 2001: Trans Tec Services Inc v The Lyubov Orlova 2001 FCT 958
plaintiff provided bunkers to several ships pursuant to a contract with a former charterer of defendant vessel, when present operator commenced its own charter of the vessel the plaintiff made it aware of the outstanding accounts, operator offered to settle the invoices and provided the funds necessary to pay those invoices which the plaintiff accepted, plaintiff then argued that the terms of its contract with the former charterer permitted it to apply those payments to the oldest invoices outstanding which related to another vessel so the debt of the current vessel remained outstanding, operator sought summary judgment dismissing the action, plaintiff opposed this claiming that there was conflicting evidence as to the operator's knowledge of the contractual terms, court rejected this on the basis of credibility of witnesses, operator was a third party not bound by earlier contract, operator's offer to pay the vessel's outstanding debts constituted a new offer for a unilateral contract which the plaintiff accepted, that offer related only to defendant ship, plaintiff bound by its acceptance

26 Jun 2001: Nedship Bank Nv v The Zoodotis 2001 FCT 706
plaintiff sought order requiring supplier of bunker fuel to sister ships of defendant vessel to post security for costs, supplier was a claimant against the proceeds of sale of the vessel whose entitlements were to be determined by a priorities hearing, plaintiff argued the supplier was an English company with insufficient assets in Canada to pay an award of costs made against it, court refused to make order as the supplier was not a party but merely a claimant against the proceeds of sale, noted that if an in rem claimant sought the right to substantive involvement in a proceeding that claimant might be joined as a defendant upon the posting of adequate security, no substantial involvement in this case

21 Jun 2001: Logistec Stevedoring Inc v Amican Navigation Inc 2001 FCT 681
action to recover on invoices for stevedoring services, vessels time chartered by Pegasus, Amican was Pegasus' general agent as well as agent for other shipping lines, default judgement against Pegasus, whether Amican personally liable for claim, written communication on Amican's letterhead, bottom of page displayed words 'general agents, Pegasus Lines Ltd. S.A.' but Amican signed without reference to agency relationship, Amican represented it had been awarded the contract for the transport of the cargo without reference to Pegasus, Amican representatives had not disclosed in oral communications that it was acting solely as agent, Logistec assumed Amican contracting on own behalf, otherwise would have made inquiries regarding Pegasus' credit worthiness, court held Amican contracted as principal not agent, even if had contracted as agent it remained personally liable for failing to disclose it was acting only as an agent, court rejected Amican's objections to the invoices

18 Jun 2001: Dryburgh v Oak Bay Marina (1992) Ltd 2001 FCT 671
plaintiff's yacht damaged at marina when dock broke loose and drifted aground, clause in mooring contract purported to protect marina from liability for its negligence or that of its servants or agents, question whether this covered marina's employee who designed and constructed the dock, clause made no mention of its employees, despite the absence of privity the court held that an employee can benefit from a limitation of liability clause where the clause expressly or impliedly extends the benefit to employees and the employee was acting in the course of his/her employment and performing the various services provided for in the contract when the loss occurred, unless there is a clear intention not to cover employees their cover is implied

06 Jun 2001: Global Enterprises International Inc v The Acquarius 2001 FCT 605
vessel and two sister ships arrested by necessaries supplier, Polish trustee in bankruptcy for the owners of the vessels sought an extension of time to appeal and a stay of the sale, principal basis for the motion was that trustee was negotiating with the vessel's creditors and needed time to bring negotiations to fruition, court reviewed the relevant factors in considering whether to grant an extension - applicant must show a continuing intention to pursue the appeal, that the appeal has merit, that no prejudice against the respondent arises from the delay, and that a reasonable explanation for the delay exists - none of which were assisted by the intention to pursue negotiations with the ship's creditors, trustee failed to make a case for either an extension of time or a stay of the sale

06 Jun 2001: Gilling v Canada 2001 FCT 595
plaintiff sought recognition of right to possession and ownership of vessel, concurrent actions in Canada and Turkey, Turkish court dismissed action due to proceedings in Canada, that decision subject to appeal, defendant was registered owner of vessel, defendant sought imposition of a condition that plaintiff could continue Canadian proceedings only if he withdrew his action in Turkey and bring to an end the seizure of the vessel in that country, Federal Court has jurisdiction to impose such a condition, condition would not adversely affect the plaintiff respecting the substantive issue to be decided or jeopardize the Canadian court's authority over the vessel, no legitimate reason for maintaining the Turkish proceeding as Canada the forum conveniens, court imposed the condition

15 May 2001: James Fisher & Sons Plc v Pegasus Lines Ltd 2001 FCT 489
examination in aid of execution, Mr Karathanos was the principal of Amican who were agents for the judgment debtor Pegasus, Mr Karathanos was ordered to attend examination as an officer of Pegasus, he sought to be relieved of this obligation, court reconsidered whether Mr Karathanos was an officer of Pegasus, that conclusion was based on evidence that Mr Karathanos was responsible for the incorporation of Pegasus and that Amican were the managers of Pegasus and that Amican or Mr Karathanos continued to act in the interests of Pegasus, evidence confirmed this and the court inferred that Mr Karathanos was the directing mind of Pegasus in the absence of any evidence adduced by him which indicated that someone else was the directing mind, Mr Karathanos obliged to reattend examination

01 May 2001: Unitor Asa v The Seabreeze 2001 FCT 416
ship arrested an sold by court order, competing claims against the proceeds of sale, only offer to purchase came from a company related to the vessel's mortgagee, shortly following the sale the ship was lost in a storm, claimants against the proceeds were required to file affidavits of claim, court prescribed a process for adjudication of certain so-called initial claims for which the highest level of priority was asserted, included claims by mortgagee for reimbursement of amounts paid in crew wages and repatriation and for the maintenance of the vessel while under arrest, also for the value of bunkers at time of sale, other claimants applied for documentary disclosure and the right to cross-examine the deponent of mortgagee's affidavits of claim, argued that if mortgagee had achieved an undisclosed profit by purchasing the vessel at a time when it knew that there was another purchaser prepared to pay more it should be required to satisfy its claims from this secret profit, court held the mortgagee not obliged to disclose documents or produce its deponent as the information sought was neither formally nor legally relevant - the alleged undisclosed profit would not have assisted the applicants in challenging the ranking of the mortgagee's initial claims, in addition without sworn affidavit evidence of a resale there was no factual basis to support the applicants' inquiries

02 Feb 2001: Richardson International Ltd v The Mys Chikhacheva 2001 FCT 13; [2001] 3 FC 41
plaintiff company incorporated in Washington State, entered into agreement pursuant to which it loaned money to a Russian corporation for refitting a factory processing ship and providing essentials to that vessel and two trawlers, plaintiff to have the exclusive right to market products from the three vessels until debt repaid and was granted a mortgage on the factory processing ship, plaintiff also supplied fuel and provisions and paid certain salaries and travel expenses, Russian corporation breached agreement by selling the production to third parties, Russian corporation entered into bankruptcy in Russia, plaintiff arrested one of the trawlers in BC, this action defended by true owner of the vessel, whether defendant vessel was liable in rem for plaintiff's claims which would require application of a maritime lien under the laws of the US, determination of the proper law governing the claim, court concluded that the parties had specifically chosen the law of Washington to govern their relationship and that the constellation of contracts governing the commercial relations had the closest and most real connection to Washington's laws, as the entitlement to a maritime lien was established under US maritime law the court entered judgment against the vessel

31 Jan 2001: Porto Seguro Companhia de Seguros Gerais v Belcan SA (2001) 200 FTR 44
plaintiff the insurer of cargo on board 'Beograd', sought to recover from owners of 'Federal Danube' the various amounts it had paid out for cargo damage resulting from a collision between it and the 'Beograd', previous case held that the negligent operation of the 'Beograd' caused the collision, court did not accept there was contributory negligence by 'Federal Danube', whilst the 'Federal Danube' failed to report the exact position of her anchorage to traffic authorities this did not contribute to the collision because the master of the 'Beograd' knew where it was, court rejected assertion that 'Federal Danube' did not have permission to heave its anchor and concluded she was not yet under-way as defined in the Collision Regulations, decision from previous trial reinstated

25 Jan 2001: Ecu-Line NV v ZI Pompey Industrie (2001) 209 FTR 305
claim for cargo damage, defendant sought stay of action in favour of litigation in Antwerp pursuant to jurisdiction clause in bill of lading, bill of lading provided for carriage by sea from Antwerp to Seattle, plaintiff had emphasized the delicacy of the cargo and that it could not travel by rail, defendant transported cargo by sea to Montreal but by rail from there to Seattle, constituted an unreasonable deviation, carrier therefore lost the protection of the contract of carriage including the jurisdiction clause, motion for a stay denied, on appeal the court considered whether the trial judge had given sufficient weight to all relevant considerations, trial judge had considered the English decision The Eleftheria, rejected the appellant's submission that The Eleftheria required the dispute to be dealt with by the courts of the jurisdiction chosen by the parties, judge had taken into account all relevant considerations, appeal dismissed

2000

15 Dec 2000: Paramount Enterprises International Inc v. The An Xin Jiang [2001] 2 FC 551
Beston agreed to transport a cargo aboard a ship chartered by Paramount but then advised Paramount it had decided to entrust the cargo to another ship, Paramount filed a statement of claim in rem and in personam alleging breach of contract by shipper and tortious interference with contractual relations by ship owner, defendants applied to strike out the claims in rem and set aside the warrant of arrest, in order for court to have in rem jurisdiction the relevant property must be the cause of the action and there must be a sufficient connection between it and the claim, there was no 'nexus or causal relationship' between the action and the ship or cargo such either was the subject of the action, the subject of the action was the charterparty and the personal actions of the defendants, in rem proceedings struck out

29 Nov 2000: Encan Liquidation General Canada Inc v Transintra Canada 2000 CanLII 16598 (FC)
shipper brought action claiming shortage and damage against ocean carriers and freight forwarder, freight forwarder claimed against one of the carriers as a third party, carrier applied for a stay of the freight forwarder's third party action due to a clause in the bill of lading selecting Genoa as the jurisdiction for adjudication of disputes, bill of lading provided that the merchant agreed to all terms therein and that the term 'merchant' included the shipper and anyone acting on behalf of the shipper, freight forwarder therefore deemed to have accepted the terms of the bill of lading and bound by the jurisdiction clause, as the freight forwarded did not establish a strong case for disregarding the jurisdiction clause the court granted the stay

28 Nov 2000: Bayside Towing Ltd v Canadian Pacific Railway Co [2001] 2 FC 258
dumb barge in tow of plaintiff's tug struck and damaged railway bridge, application for summary judgement in plaintiffs limitation claim, defendant conceded plaintiff was entitled to limit its liability, whether limitation fund should be based upon the tonnage of tug or on combined tonnages of tug and tow, according to The Rhone decision the combined tonnage of a tug and tow is used to calculate the limitation fund only where they are in common ownership and both had a causative role in the damage, defendant argued this had changed since the incorporation of the Convention on Limitation of Liability for Maritime Claims and that the plaintiff's limitation fund should be calculated on the tonnage of both vessels, court concluded that the new legislation did not evidence an intention on the part of Parliament to vary the principles prescribed by the Supreme Court, plaintiff entitled to limit its liability based on the tonnage of its tug alone

28 Nov 2000: Conohan v The Cooperators (2000) 197 FTR 239; [2001] 2 FC 238
marine insurance, collision, claim by plaintiff owner of fishing vessel against insurer of other fishing vessel, owner of other vessel admitted liability and assigned to the plaintiff his rights against the insurers, insurer denied liability, captain of insured vessel convicted of operating vessel under influence of alcohol, insurer raised implied warranty that the marine adventure is lawful, this rejected as the statutory definition of 'marine adventure' meant any situation where insurable property was exposed to 'maritime perils' which encompassed events not in the control of the insured unlike the causes of the present collision, insurer also alleged it was not liable because the captain had engaged in wilful misconduct but this was rejected as no evidence that the captain wilfully breached collision rules merely that did not maintain proper lookout, insurer also defended on the basis that the policy excluded damage caused by drunken operation of the vessel, court rejected this as the wording only covered claims for damage to the vessel and not claims for indemnity, in any case it was not proven that there was drunken operation of the vessel at time of collision, insurer ultimately prevailed due to a clause which provided that the insured's liability was invoked if the vessel collided with another vessel and as a consequence the insured had become liable to pay and did pay damages, insurer had no liability unless the insured had first paid the claim to the plaintiff which he had not done

21 Nov 2000: Ruby Trading SA v Parsons (2000) 194 DLR 4th 303; [2001] 2 FC 174
whether Federal Court had jurisdiction to entertain an action by a foreign ship owner against four of its foreign crew members and a Canadian union for inducing breach of contract between the ship owner and the crew members and against the union's representative and crew members for conspiracy to cause economic harm, owners obtained injunction preventing those parties from disrupting the loading or movements of the vessel, whether the subject matter of the claims sounding in contract and tort were sufficiently connected with maritime matters to warrant application of Canadian maritime law, as the employment contracts related to the operation of a ship and the losses claimed resulted from delays in the vessel's operation an integral connection did exist sufficient to afford jurisdiction, rejected argument that jurisdiction over these claims was exclusively assigned to the Canadian Industrial Relations Board

13 Oct 2000: Laing v Boreal Pacific (2000) 264 NR 378;(2000) 188 FTR 160
marine insurance, appellant claimed for loss of excavator under a marine insurance policy following an accident at sea, underwriter refused to pay on the grounds that the vessel was not seaworthy and the appellant was privy to this fact, trial judge found the vessel had been too heavily laden for the sea conditions and the excavator was not secured or stowed in a safe manner, concluded the appellant had knowledge of unseaworthy condition and turned a 'blind eye' to it, Court of Appeal concluded that turning a blind eye to the fact that known circumstances rendered a ship unseaworthy constituted sufficient privity to exclude underwriter's liability

2 Aug 2000: Governor and Company of the Bank of Scotland v The Nel [2001] 1 FC 408
The Nel was arrested by Bank of Scotland as mortgagee and sold by court process, competing claims, mortgage claim so large that any claim without maritime lien status would not be paid, Bank involved in purchase and resale of Nel's sister ship which was part of fleet mortgaged to Bank, sister ship purchased at court ordered sale in South Africa by Bank through a nominee company, immediately sold vessel to an existing customer of the Bank at a profit, profit held to be a return on Bank's security which had to be applied towards satisfaction of fleet mortgage thereby reducing the Bank's claim against proceeds of sale, court permitted necessaries suppliers to claim US maritime liens as they utilised US agents who supplied the necessaries, court rejected argument that a claim supported by a maritime lien against a sister ship could be transferred with equivalent priority against the proceeds of the sale of the Nel under sister ship arrest jurisdiction, accepted that claims for necessaries supplied to other vessels in the fleet could be exercised against the Nel on an unsecured basis as registered owners were shell or sham companies disguising the fact that the corporate parent was the true owner, court exercised its jurisdiction to vary usual framework of priorities to place a Canadian supplier of medical services in a position analogous to that of maritime lien holder, clinic had no ethical choice but to assist mariners, therefore appropriate and in keeping with justice to afford it a higher priority

21 Jun 2000: Kanematsu Gmbh v Acadian Shipbrokers Ltd (2000) 259 NR 201
plaintiff sought summary judgment against defendant charterers of vessel for inducing owner to breach its contractual obligations by discharging and delivering its cargo without presentation of the original bills of lading, defendants argued there was no inducement of vessel's owner to deliver the cargo but only to discharge it, motions judge granted summary judgement based on principle that a ship owner who surrenders possession of the goods without production of bill of lading is liable, Court of Appeal held that the motions judge had erred in granting summary judgment in reliance on the law imposing liability upon ship owners who part with goods without surrender of the original bill of lading, appellants were charterers and not owners of the vessel, any claim against them was as tortfeasors, whether the elements of these torts was made out not clear from evidence adduced on motion for summary judgment

20 Jun 2000: Anraj Fish Products Industries Ltd v Hyundai Merchant Marine Co Ltd (2000) 262 NR 270; (2000) 190 FTR 259
plaintiff made claim for cargo damage, prothonotary granted stay of claim pending litigation in Korea, Korean jurisdiction clause in bill of lading, prothonotary relied on The Eleftheria decision to conclude that serious inconvenience to the plaintiff was not a sufficiently strong reason to depart from the forum identified in the bill of lading, stay overturned by Federal Court judge but reinstated by Federal Court of Appeal, held the prothonotary properly applied the applicable test, emphasised that the premise of the decision in The Eleftheria was that parties should be held to their agreements and courts should not override jurisdiction clauses unless it would not be reasonable or just to do so, proceedings stayed conditional upon Hyundai waiving a time bar that otherwise applicable in Korea.

20 Jun 2000: Nissho Iwai Co v Shanghai Ocean Shipping Co (2000) 185 FTR 314
forum non conveniens, vessel on way from Canada to Japan grounded in Russian waters, plaintiff cargo interests Japanese based corporations, defendant corporation based in China, plaintiffs alleged grounding caused by incompetence of officers and crew, argued there was a real and substantial connection to Canada because a number of witnesses in Canada observed the competence of the officers and crew, argued they should be afforded a range of juridical advantages not available through Chinese courts, court held there was a real and substantial connection between this action and China, virtually all the evidence as to the competence of officers and crew would come from witnesses in China, advantages to plaintiffs in Canadian court not sufficient to outweigh this real and substantial connection, stayed the Canadian proceeding on condition that defendant's waiver of the time bar available under Chinese law be accepted by Chinese court

24 May 2000: Fibreco Pulp Inc v Star Shipping A/S (The Star Dover) (2000) 257 NR 291; (2000), 184 FTR 98
action for cargo damage, plaintiff made contract of affreightment with Star Shipping, defendants applied to have actions stayed in favour of London arbitration, contract of affreightment provided that any disputes were to be arbitrated in London, bills of lading provided that any dispute to be decided in the country where the carrier had its principal place of business, contract of affreightment stated it prevailed in the event of conflict with bills of lading, court thus bound to stay the action against Start Shipping, effect of clause on some other defendants was more complicated, bills of lading included a Himalaya clause pursuant to which the contractors argued they were entitled to the benefits of the arbitration clause, in absence of evidence that these companies either conferred upon the carrier authority to contract or later ratified such the court rejected this argument, however court exercised its residual discretion and stayed the entire action in order to resolve the plaintiffs' claim, upheld on appeal

05 Apr 2000: John E Canning Ltd v Tripap Inc (2000) 185 FTR 304
plaintiff contracted with defendant for an annual quantity of wood, defendant terminated the agreement on the grounds that the plaintiff had failed to perform its obligations, plaintiff commenced action for breach of contract, defendant applied to strike out claim on the basis that the action did not fall within the Federal Court's maritime jurisdiction, court considered that the specific claims being advanced had to be integrally connected to maritime matters, court did not have jurisdiction as the sole claim advanced related to the unlawful termination of a purchase and sale agreement and no damages were claimed in respect of any maritime aspects of the agreement

17 Mar 2000: Pantainer Ltd v 996660 Ontario Ltd (2000) 5 BLR (3d) 237; (2000)183 FTR 211
plaintiffs were an ocean carrier and freight forwarder which had carried a number of shipments for defendant and stored cargo in warehouses pending distribution, claimed for unpaid freight and ancillary charges, motion for summary judgment, defendant claimed it was entitled to assert counterclaims and set-off in connection with damage and delay and breach of contract, counterclaims related to different shipments than those for which freight remained unpaid, court accepted the plaintiff was entitled to summary judgement on the principle that in the absence of agreement to the contrary freight must be paid without set-off, then considered the defendants reliance on the Expeditors decision in which the court granted summary judgment but stayed execution of the judgment pending the outcome of the defendant's counterclaim as the counterclaim arose out of the same transaction and the plaintiff had not demonstrated it would suffer any serious prejudice, court distinguished that decision as the counterclaims did not relate to the same transactions as the freight claims, refused stay

07 Mar 2000: Canadian Pacific Railway Co v The Sheena M [2000] 4 FC 159
plaintiff claimed damage to its railway bridge caused when dumb barge in tow of defendants' tug struck it, tug owner sought a stay of the action pending outcome of its limitation proceeding, court must be satisfied that the stay would not be unjust to the plaintiff and that continuation of the action would cause prejudice to defendants, defendant a one man operation, forcing the action to trial could be lengthy and unnecessary, action would be prejudicial as it would shut down defendant's operation, 1976 Convention limitation regime was designed to reduce litigation and it should be allowed to unfold as intended, no prejudice to plaintiff as delay expected to be brief, if plaintiff succeeded on limitation action this could do away with need for a trial on liability, no surprise or other prejudice, stay granted

15 Feb 2000: Kajat v The Arctic Taglu [2000] 3 FC 96; (2000) 252 NR 152
plaintiff's husband and son perished in collision of her husband's fishing boat with a tug and barge combination, trial judge held collision caused largely by improper lighting aboard tug and tow and by the operator of the tug and barge using a search light to pan up and down the length of the vessels when the fishing boat was approaching, defendants 85% at fault and plaintiff's husband 15%, Coast Guard liable for 30% of liability attributable to defendants as the failure to properly light was partly attributable to the failure of Coast Guard officials to identify the pushing arrangement as a composite unit and to their misinterpretation of the Collision Regulations, defendants appealed alleging that the trial judge erred in admitting evidence of two commercial fishermen who related their experiences in encountering the tug and tow at night on previous occasions, fishermen had interpreted the use of the search light as a signal that there was a danger on the port side of those vessels causing them to turn across bow of tug and tow, defendants argued these encounters were sufficiently dissimilar so as to have no probative value, in order for similar fact evidence to be admissible the trial judge must evaluate the degree of similarity of the alleged acts and decide whether the objective improbability of coincidence has been established, failure to make a clear evaluation as to whether the evidence was logically probative constituted an error in law, appeal allowed and ordered new trial

11 Feb 2000: Holt Cargo Systems Inc v The Brussel (2000) 16 CBR (4th) 188; (2000) 185 FTR 1
competing claims against proceeds of sale of ship, mortgagee asserted fleet mortgage claim large enough to consume entire proceeds, if mortgagee's claim upheld only claims entitled to maritime lien status would recover, a number of American necessaries suppliers were entitled under US law to a maritime lien against ship, several of these asserted claims related to the supply of necessaries to the ship and her sister ships, claims against the ship were entitled to a maritime lien, court rejected the claimants' contention that the claims which were supported by maritime liens against the sister ships could be asserted with equivalent priority against the sold vessel, maritime lien a privileged claim that attached to a particular ship and was not transferred to sister ships by virtue of sister ship arrest legislation

04 Feb 2000: Transport Navimex Canada Inc v Canada 255 (2000) NR 124; (2000) 180 FTR 19
appellant contracted with Crown to transport a cargo, Crown subsequently terminated contract as it concluded the vessel did not have the requisite capacity, at trial Crown was liable for unlawfully terminating agreement but action dismissed as plaintiff failed to establish any losses, whether the evidence at trial was sufficient to establish losses, plaintiff also argued it should be awarded damages for lost profits it could have earned in the back haul, court concluded that insufficient evidence to establish the plaintiff would have earned freight on the return, however seems that if plaintiff had been able to prove it had booked a return cargo the freight would have been recoverable from the Crown notwithstanding that the carriage of this back haul cargo would have been entirely external to the contract between the parties

02 Feb 2000: Bayside Towing Ltd v Canadian Pacific Railway [2000] 3 FC 127
1976 Convention on Limitation of Liability for Maritime Claims, dumb barge in tow of plaintiff's tug struck and damaged railway bridge, plaintiff commenced limitation action and constituted the limitation fund based on the tonnage of the tug, defendant challenged the right to limit liability and the amount of the limitation fund, plaintiffs sought to strike out portions of the defence, Article IV of Convention - right to limitation lost if the loss resulted from a personal act or omission committed with intent to cause such loss or recklessly with knowledge that such loss would probably result, court struck out portions of defence which alleged negligence/defaults falling short of recklessness, struck out allegations of defaults on the part of barge owner, declined to strike out allegations as to breaches of the Collision Regulations by the tug and the allegation that such breaches constituted wilful defaults, court expressed doubt as to whether this would bar limitation but left it to be tested at trial as it was one of the first proceedings under the new limitation of liability legislation, defendants also argued that the relevant limitation tonnage was that of the tug and tow combined, court noted that this principle no longer held where the cause of the damage was the improper navigation of the tug and not the tow, court allowed the issue to go to trial as the defendants suggested this analysis may not be determinative under the new limitation of liability regime

18 Jan 2000: Inter Atlantic Canada Limited v The Cuyaguateje (2000) 180 FTR 318
plaintiff arrested defendant ship and her cargo as security for a claim for breach of an agreement concerning access to a shrimp quota allocated by North Atlantic Fisheries Organization to Cuba, vessel's charterer applied to set aside arrest, court granted the motion holding that that claim under the quota agreement was not so integrally connected to maritime matters as to be a matter of maritime law within the Federal Court's jurisdiction, rejected plaintiff's argument that the provision of the quota represented the supply of necessaries, in any case the defendant ship and its cargo were not the subject of the action and accordingly could not be the subject of an arrest

1999

13 Dec 1999: North Ridge Fishing Ltd v The Prosperity (2000) 70 BCLR (3d) 283;[2000] 3 WWR 368
plaintiff alleged the Prosperity cut its net while seining for roe herring resulting in damage to the seine and loss of catch, owners applied to strike out action on the basis that the vessel was under bareboat charter at that time, plaintiffs sought leave to add bareboat charterer as a defendant, action barred by s572(1) of Canada Shipping Act as it was over two years after the collision, whether court should extend the limitation period under s572(3), s572 reflected Canada's adherence to the Collision Convention, looked to applicable English jurisprudence, less onerous test under Canadian law, plaintiff had a prima facie case, no prejudice to bareboat charterer as knew about claim from outset, more difficult question was whether it was in interests of justice to extend time, plaintiffs' solicitors had considered joining the charterer shortly after collision, court critical of lack of evidence on why did not join and why now changed minds, nevertheless concluded that interests of justice required the extension of time

20 Oct 1999: Trade Arbed Inc v The Macado 1999 CanLII 8912 (FC)
arrest of vessel set aside, the fact the carriage of the defendant cargo may have made the carriage of the plaintiff's cargo commercially viable did not mean the defendant cargo was the subject of the action, defendant sought to have costs awarded on solicitor and client basis, sought order that plaintiff's counsel pay these costs personally, judge noted that the decision setting aside the arrest was rendered because there was an abuse of process, noted that seizure of cargo procedures are extraordinary and constitute interference with another's property, facts therefore sufficient to justify the exercise of the court's jurisdiction to award costs on a solicitor and client basis against the plaintiff but not against counsel personally

1990

7 Sep 1990: Francosteel Corp v Fednav Ltd, 37 FTR 184 CARRIERS - carriage of steel - damage to goods - rust damage to steel during shipment - carriers responsibility to prevent sweat damage - burden of proof in negligence action - proof that the goods were tendered in good condition to the carrier and were ultimately received in a damaged condition - Article IV of the Hague Rules - held, plaintiff has not met its burden of establishing a prima facie case of liability, or alternatively, defendants have established that the damage was not due to any act of negligence on their part.